Nederzettingen uit de bronstijd en ijzertijd in Angelslo-Emmerhout (Gem. Emmen)


  • P.B. Kooi


In the years 1961-1968 the Biologisch-Archeologisch Instituut (now Groninger Instituut voor Archeologie, GIA) performed large-scale excavations during the development of the new residential areas of Angelslo and Emmerhout, east of Emmen. This article deals with the settlement traces from the Bronze Age and the Iron Age that were encountered there, and which included the plans of farmhouses, barns, granaries and enclosures. It mainly focuses on the development of the farmhouse, through the analysis of house plans. These first appeared around 1250 BC, in the Middle Bronze Age, with the house type "Emmerhout". This type and the "Elp" type, which evolved somewhat later, continued into the Late Bronze Age. This development was initially accompanied by an increase in byre space, which at the transition to the Early Iron Age decreased again, resulting in the house type "Een" (see table). Particularly complex traces are those of Emmerhout- and Elp-type house plans that incorporate lengthwise extensions and alterations; for instance, plans no. 52 and no. 36. Such alterations, as well as clustered house plans show that farmsteads often remained in roughly the same spot for considerable lengths of time. The Middle Iron Age apparently brought a change, as house plans characteristic of this period are absent from the site. The presence of two Celtic-field systems in the close vicinity suggests that the farms were moved to these areas. A special case is that of house plan no. 16, which is completely surrounded by an enclosure. Parts of similar enclosures accompany house plans 17 and 19.