Het project Peelo: Het onderzoek van het Kleuvenveld (1983, 1984), het burchtterrein (1980) en het Nijland (1980), met enige kanttekeningen bij de resultaten van het project


  • P.B. Kooi


In this third paper excavations at different locations near Peelo are described. The excavations took place in 1980 on a plot of land where traces of a house were expected and on the Nijland (= new land), cultivated in the first half of the 17th century. In 1983 and 1984 a Celtic field complex on the Kleuvenveld was explored with two trial trenches.

Results. As usual, the results are presented in chronological order; starting on the Kleuvenveld. Neolithic. Theoldest traces belong to the Single Grave culture: a ring ditch (fig. 6, square BY/l) and a sherd from a Protruding Footbeaker in the vicinity (find No. 1046), dated between 2900 and 2600 BC. Iron Age. During the Iron Age a Celtic field system developed, probably starting with a few regular shaped nuclei expending with irregular fieIds in between (fig. 4). In the trial trenches 3 farmhouses, a shed or stable and 68 granaries were discovered (fig. 7). Clustering of granaries and pits suggest that there have been at least two more farms just next to the excavated trenches. The farmhouses Nos 106 and 109 are of the pre-Hijken type and can be dated between 800 and 400 BC. The third one is from a period between 250 and 100 BC.

A group of ten barrows in this area, excavated in 1937, can be dated in the same period as the settlement traces (fig. 7, 23-29). The location of a house, surrounded by a double moat was already partly excavated in 1926 (unpublished). It was built about 1600 for a member of the Onsta family, a nobleman who exploited two of the three farms at that time. The building probably existed for only a few decades and it left no traces, due to levelling activities in the past.

During the 17th century an area to the north of Peelo was cultivated by digging trenches. Three farmers participated in the work (fig. 46-49). At the end of this article two existing old farmhouses, once in the centre of Peelo, are published. The oldest one (fig. 54) dates from the beginning of the 17th century. The second one was built between 1695 and 1742 (fig. 53). Both were partly rebuilt in brick during the time of their existance.