Late Quaternary vegetation and climate of Southwestern Turkey. Part II


  • S. Bottema
  • H. Woldring


In this paper additional information is given on the vegetational history of southwestern Turkey. The history of the area is extended in time and space. The area covered extends from the Mediterranean coast in the southwest to the plain of Konya in the east. The oldest periods studied date back to c. 15,000 B.P. but most of the information is from the Holocene. The vegetational and climatic history is treated for everycore locality. General conclusions are in agreement with the study on the 'Late Quaternary vegetation and climate of southwestern Turkey' (van Zeist et al., 1975). Especially the problematical high pollen percentages of Centaurea solstitialis-type are discussed.

An attempt has been made to reconstruct the environment of prehistoric man and the impact of early inhabitants upon the vegetation is analysed. Clear indications derived from the palynological record are from Late Neolithic and metal cultures only, as the early Neolithic has left no traces. An important agrofruticultural period starting at about 3200 B.P. cannot be brought into line with the archaeological evidence.