Palaeobotanical studies of settlement sites in the coastal area of the Netherlands


  • W. van Zeist


(p. 368)

In this paper the palaeobotanical examination is discussed of 10 settlement sites in the coastal region of the Netherlands, viz. Paddepoel-Groningen, Ezinge, Tzummarum, Leeuwarden, Tritsum, Sneek, Den Helder-Het Torp, Vlaardingen-Broekpolder, Schiedam-Kethel, and Ouddorp-De Oude Oostdijk (fig. I). These sites, which are dated to the Iron Age and Medieval times, include habitation mounds as well as settlement remains covered by marine clay. The guantitative results of the examination of samples secured from the sites mentioned above are shown in tables 1 to 10. Altogether 37 moss species and 183 types of seeds, fruits, and other remains of flowering plants could be ascertained. The plant remains are briefly discussed in chapter 3. The main objective of this study is the reconstruction of the vegetation in the vicinity of the sites concerned. This reconstruction is primarily based on the results of phytosociological investigations. The palaeobotanical data demonstrate that most of the sites were situated in the brackish environment of the salt marshes. Only Vlaardingen and Schiedam were founded in a freshwater environment. In tables 22 to 31 it is indicated which vegetation types (syntaxonomic units) have been postulated for the various sites.